DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SERVICE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK YELLOWSTONE PARK. WYO. OF THE SUPERINTENDENT Copy from FILE 145 for 19 2 0. V 1030. " t 4 Y , . Piige. I, General Conditions i XX* Fersonnel. . . 2 XXI. Work Completed 7 IV # Work in Progress 10 V, Work Batfun 12 VI* Plane or Proposed Hork 12 VIX. Policies. .,.*..., 13 VIII, Coat of Operation 13 IX, Other liatt arn of Interast.... 14 ffild Animals 14 Birds . , , « . 17 Irishes 17 Seasonal Changes ♦.,..♦ 18 Arrests <& Violations of Law 19 forest Jfiroa. ........ 20 Acuidents and Casualties. • 1 20 Medical Services. *•*•««*••• Natural Phenomena 20 Special Visitors 20 Motion Pictures, . . 21 Miscellaneous . . 21 1 teceipts and Hejaittaneea 21 Original notes from Ch.Ran.Of f ice, dinner, Weather Bureau, and Electrician, attached. HMA . A . L • DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SERVICE YELLOWSTONE NA1 IUNAL PARK ./YO. ICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT 9, 19». Jin 2he following Is ■* rm^ort on conditions in the Yellowstone national . arlc t and on the sparntlon of ttu vhloh was 4 degrees bolow nomad for ^. It *aa uniformly lew and no iiwul estrones occurred. The total pre im 2.04 lnohes, which ty .93 InohM greater than nemal. :here m B.2 lnanes of snowfall, of which 2 Inches foil tte last day of the sjoath t ahioh wai an unusual fall of snow for so late a data. 2his low ten lerature and exoesoivo precipitation, dU aat land to hasten an already bolatod oprlnpr. and the deep news in the pane did not wit sufficiently to mafce the roado passable without sens of it beinp renewed artificially. ?hie condition oxlated a am o enine of the tl>e a *r pwk be ft re tlo o <miu of t?o aevson m .Tunc W . Bookings Indicate a leewy travel at the Tory boffinnin* of the eeaaon 9 reqelrlne; that all oeneeeeionere be in raadiaeea to take care of the public ay <Tuno 20th. She iatos otel hae aot been open far two owner a v and -./ill, t> ore fore t ro aire aeao >rcll*ninary war* than usual to nefee it 2he Lake cmo me oven In earee eonditton far the and rehires an Innsnss amount of labor and freighting before it oaa be oocacd for tourists. struotion of a new store at ,ake Outlet last fail* end eertooi aa lots? as the either aould permit, but still has men to do before it can be used. Merge hit taker has the sans con- dition at the Canyon, ilatarally* ell of ttese ooneeesioaars were very anxious to hare the roads evened early so they could : ;ot on the ground and flake ready for the epeniic of the season. •1- lit were torn* of the ©oaditions that 1 found ay return, to the pane on lay 9th, after an absence Logton, California and Jk avail, nine© laat f&ll. fev ro orts en the der*th of snow between ;*WMefe: ~s and Harris, canyon, and to the iftfce Outlet, were m However, X had previous!, given instructions V letter to hare everything lined up for a atart to open the roads soon after wy arrival, and aa soon ae practicable I had a eouforeaoe vlth the eonaeaeionere inter ee tod, and we agreed upon a plan of cooperation in the matter of furnishing labor end earlier and a ^portioning the ex: raises incurred, in oa attra t to break through to the Lalse* via Ton* is and Canyon* I had send forward ins tractions as to the building of a saow plow, to be plaeed In front of the 75~horae~ xjwer caterpillar tractor, frcs ideas that I had gathered freai talking with the chief raeehsnie in Yosemi , and these instructions were aarefully earrled out and the saoirplew moated in front of the tractor by oar chief "»ebanle, Bert tla&ott. Biere was mob speculation as to whether the plow would work in dee~ enow, the majority beli# of the opinion that it would not* It did work, far better than anyone ear- posted, as will be Oh own by the fast that it left f-eadqaartera l£th, reached orris station, 20 miles fron here, on lay 30th at noonj Canyon, 11 miles further aloi*», on "ley 24th, and to i-a&e Outlet, 15 ssiles further, on Nf nath. reviews to the date the eater illar started out, the big drift am Oate was shoveled through by men furnished by the transportation and cmtm companies, tat on the arrival of the big mchino with the saowplov;, on Utf it waa found that the out had not been laade wide enough, and 30 laen wwnt out from lameth on *fcy 13th and widened this out and shoveled through another deep drift Just beyond the 'Jolden ante* Beyond this point the big nlow worked splendidly in anew up to 4 feet dee >, but, of course, there was considerable sfeoveling to be done in the deeper drifts and in the oute, end a crew of 12 mmx was constantly employed with the tractor. Bare and shallow plaoes were found sow t Sues for a mile or two in ax* tent, but the snow taken from the road waa Area 2 to 5 feet deep, with occasional drifts that rm much deeper. i?here waa eorne fOar that the road would be bat! washed fro* meltii^ saw?, if the snow was scraped out of the middle, but this did not prove true, eepeeially where there was a little slope from the raiddle towards the outside, and the read dried sarprl singly ooon after the snow had been seraped away. It mt a wonderful ei^ht to watch this powerful caterpillar, plowing Its way Mtfpufl four feet of heavy anew, leaving a trail behind it eleven feet wide, with the enow tanked up eix to eigrht feet deep. It la alao a navel experi- ence to drive through this lane of snora for mile a, with a comparatively dry road, with the ta#?e aaowbanka aa high aa the top of an ordinary automobile, and bo oloae that they are within reaah from the oar. 2hese, of course, are oltiw? rapidly, hat there will he eone left over the hi#h divides for the efityfieation of the first tourists the latter sort of thia month, A aet of photographs, shewing the wo*KU* of the plow and the snow conditions, la inclosed, iHtfa* Light eara were able to go over the roede aoon after the anew waa eleared away* general traffic waa pcraitted with trucks to Horn a and the eat aide of the *tric, where the met had aelted, en Kay 2?th, and to the eaat side on the 8th. Be work: waa required to open the road fro eat Yellowstone to Upper £«ytar Baein, and with a little shoveling of a few dri ta in Gibbon Uauyon the whole mat side waa open on 21et Of :-, Oara were able to go over the road to Soda fcntte Station on ay 24th, the only bad drift having been ehovaiad onfc by the Cooke City nail contractor^ fwiee during the a nth, namely fro a noon, Hay 1 to noon, May 15th, and fxwra the morning of May : 4th to the norniag of the 25th, the heavy true* traffic was sto ;oe< the road between Headqctartere and Gardiner, following mery heavy atoms which aeaked the read and Made it very soft. Only 25 people entered the park during the month, by lneloeed report of the Chief ; ;aa?er« ?bese entered at aardinar for ahert tripe to Mammoth. ?hia aanfeer deea not include thoae coming in to work for the Oercmraeat and the concessioners. idJitr iiirt ffi irly Sftwriftr* tfo difficulty hae bean had in securing no **ay laborers and meehanlee aa are wanted, at the aarae we&ea ae ware paid them laet year, namely H per d^ for oo jnon labor, and in proportion for wohaniea. ^applies are sonevhat higtar and scarce, especially potatoes, ahieh art v 9 p«r get., and sugar, which seems to bo constantly soaring. ?h© hi#! prio© of these eta the ooet of subsistence of oar laborers considerably higher than last season. Meals In our general mess at IfsiSlli ooet an average •* 46-1/5 eents II. : 'to I'ay 1st there were 75 employees on duty nnder this offloe in the parte, and on 2t*g 31st there vera 94, Below is given a list of the number of employees serving under sppointaent, ;itb a general statement of the Kind of perforaed by eaeh elaeo: 1 sst. iinglneer. 1 Blaete»nlth. 6 Cle r>. 1 of -Vans wtatien. 9 Kleetrlolaas. Off iee engineering and in charge of road eepelr crews in v of Headqaarters. blackenith work. hoe- i:v: iMfl I l ||i •mi r-iu or ■ a ddl e horses, and overhauling tools and equipment. 1 disbursing agmt and pur- chasing clerk,- 1 on orders, >ro- osals aad vouchers; 1 stent pher, files and rev e n u es; 1 payrolls aad tfcnekeeping; 1 eost accounting, elorkikaaelsteii indexl^r library, and tabu- Lag notoo on ;114 animals, birds, and to the establishment of the pro- posed museum In oharge of all traaspertati 4aelttdlncr sho 1 in oharge of power plant who operated and did necessary lino work* * assistant s v/ho M» i&lfttt* l Buffalo Z AM*. Buffalo 4 1 Okmeral 1 Lineman* 1 i&aster :%eharUe. 1 jtatoTOtoile 'eohariic. 1 Metoreyole <eeh*iie« 1 regular shifts includingr biaidays. In ehe*£e of taw troff&lo herd, feeding and oari**? for Mm Assisting fcaffalo fceeperjfln oaring for the buffalo herd* 1 in oharge of stables^ **rm»ii<' of the month repairing tents atid harness for next ee*aon f s worte* 1 in charge of engineering work* 1 ia eharge of work on erib of : bridge and road la east forest reserve. 1 in charge of repairs sprinkling* qratsnu In eh&sg* of construction vo*k« or '3d In storehouse insula: >s f aad ©orti^r* over, nwizg*;, and at storehouses* also helped handle qpprftlee **wi railroad* to In charge of telephone eastern; did tmige^ and installed in- struments* Mg&t tarn hqtiixv? freight or express ffcdm railroad to He4Agaartera v?hen not otherwise oaaaged* >ahnon at T'eedqaorters* ?ade hourly ^trols for fire at n&ht*. end topt fires up and cleaned Headquarters t»ildin£* orfeed « lneludiig Sendee. In chaise of Shops and opening roods of mm with caterpillar and snow* plow* orfced on automobile and tract repairs* Wotted en notoreyolee: A overhauled - In charge of general plartbinf at Headquarters, did general repair \l *«% 1 telegraph operator. X7 MT« 1 1 1 I 6 lit class par* rugf ■« :elo pMM *> Laborer. Chief au*er. •st. Chief Bjt | BjBJpgSJSJ, Renovated quarters at rea&piarters aad painting signs sad efipai^wmt for guidance ef public In par*. Seat and received oaten: tcrlerri-.e; aleo pat in regular shift BjSJ I a; 1 to If pMfi Operate ffc sovo ; Operated telephone switchboard. Miscellaneous work at headquarters. In charge of Assisting Chief Tanker. One in of southern district: 1 in of western district: *nd 1 #ith crew: opening roads* In charge of ra^er stations , on dut; Lef inker's office, patrol duty in the «r> protecting wild animal*, and repairing gem fences. ditto, horse herd* lso looking after > 2nc above employee* were on duty no stated with the ex- ception of whom they were on leave of abserae. la addition to the regular erartoyees listed above the folio ;iiv; -'ero ■ Iqssjl MM ornrit : Ml sUM Teamsters laborers Ski Hod labor or s 2 6 5 I Jtt -6~ ,^v 1 * tmtat >v wmmt 1 o Ammm IMIwn vrere & mated s I u :. mo Jiae >rk 1st to list (noon) ■I, \ . • KH . M >t» Klaotriolan lot to 6th I tmt \ c* o. uumt 01* 1 oj to 3rd (noon) \ . • Myw Mk !:ar|?or to 5 days 1* . /ustaaa t£* h«EZ^«r 4th to ■ d tys 1* ... an ■■..* alnter 8th to 11th |m • ■1 ligm l] fcyi JU • Clei* 1 th to 19th (tiO<.\\) o*m» Far roll atoh^an IMI to 22M 6 daya 0. I. Dewing Park anpar 17th to 30th 12 days ■i tftartfli ore* >;n 10 th v Myt . £• Saadel *el*. Opr. Uth to Slat M Mra •i i ustnan Parte Lazier 15th (noon) to 15tb . . MU* v Mi to 22nd 1 (Uy u 0. Laooate Buffalo Reaper 2tth to 28th 3 days . B # cirim Auto neohsnle 21ot to 22nd 2 days JU U Eala^hlin Pint Baj^er mm to 31st 1 dqr £• . H ■::. 'ar; a.i'or 24th to 31st 6 IS|rs Pord *urdy Porte Hanger ■M to 31et 6 days Hay 1st* :il^a ft* copenhorer, aaaiataat buffalo keeper* |900 par ttqy »•*. l«Wi Intahi^s, assistant buffalo Ixopcr, 960 par an .3? ;*lst, • . Mht «wto iec>^iie % M *•■ H As III* V0U C0MP1E2ED: (a) QflBrtrmtikm of r UYiiQibLABMittBBLti- She rangers an dotty in tho l of Gardiner . tation constructed an excellent new aorml of sarec lumber at the stable daring: thalr apara ti>ie« I sua - lo , iMl M v (R I Ml ll lliaili MM PMil of tha parte of snow in tba spring, was built In our stops and attached to tha 75-horse-pcwer Kalta Caterpillar factor, in service Hay -7- 12 to 27 ♦ The shares of tho plow wo raade of 3/4 steel, and are four foot in width, with o long ourro. fc wheel about eight laches in diameter .vas plane* under tho pro* of tho plow, whioh tooeps tho plow about four iaohoo off of tho aurfaoe of tho foii. Tho pi *. Mf t>MA fastened to the tractor, with long reds running %o tho roar, giving it solid bracing. log «U>. 6 foot high, 6} t—t wide, sad 40 foot filled vl th rook* iu eons true tod upstream fro* tho high a tool bridge oror tho Gardiner Ivor on tho :ower Palls rood, to diyort tho fleatlpg drift from tho too oust piers. Tho north plors of tho too oast plors was undermined, only 3 s uare foot of tho 64 foot of soaring ourfaoo hod a footing. The damaged pior rop^lrod and giro* a fins footing of oonoroto. ) foot aoutt of the Chinese iardon xo t bridge, tho 12-foot boo* mo washed to tho road grade, nother log crib was •emetruoted 3S foot lose, with tho asm oootion dine nai one as tho ono above. Also a orib 4 foot high of logs and 40 foot long was plaood i nrallol to tho vsshod ban* to rotain tho dirt fill to bo msde later, and to prevent forthor wash, Tho It* crib on tho oast ontranoo road, at Alt Pork, was Milium I ttey 3rd *ad aomploted tho 27th. The orib is ISO foot lone* 4t *••* high, and tho insldo width will vary fro* ^ to T foot in tho clear. It is roc* flllod and has a log bottom to ffOtitll tie fill, Tho orib is rathor long and Is designed not as unit, tat nado up of independent units, oaoh unit of whloh Is fn«c to dip or sij&k so as to fill tho underooour. Ait feature ho orib is quite different than tho root of tho orlbs in tho pnrv.. It Is nere flexible and will not brldgo tho holor erased Vy ths undora (b) ifilntiMMi mi limit if rhrilmil to of diaoing, seeding and harrowing in tho at tho 45Saoro fiold noar tho northorn ontranoo waa eemploted, tho irrigation ditohos cleared out and laterals nado. Tho nan and 4-tiorse tea* o^aeod in this work then moved to lot*rh Creole, whore he is to clear and Irrigate natural is oa d o w s for raising hay there for e He and tho tone taffalo herd. Ho arrived at lough efc on Hap 22nd, and has olnoo olearod up around tho preaiees, and re -aired the roofs to tho oshln and log stables there, ditohos wore cleaned out and tho wont of irrigation begun at the Buffalo Farm, on ose Creole. Bwpalrs ware made to the hi^h wire fence around the buffalo pasture at Kead<juartors, by Rangers Lawson and eoyen. S'erty-two new peats were cut and set !# these men* Extensive repairs v/«re also m<ie on the north line fence west of ttardlner, by ; -.angers etmd, Iceese, tfapuis, and Ua, requiring qaite a large number of now posts. -/ 'She plumber, assisted b;, Hangers £eoyim and Isweon, made extensive repairs to t.he mter sgrsta^a which qppplles the cabin , 1 lile south from Headquarters, which is cockled by the ranker who looses after the dhow herd of buffalo durin/r the santaer season, road frora aardtner to oldsn Gate and in the vici: of Headquarters has been graded up, drained, and the side ditches cleaned* A large boulder 6 feet by 6 feet by 8 feet, that came dam from the top of the Gardiner Canyon and lodged in a concrete culvert, was removed, tat the broken head -walls and ti ftt wall have not been repaired, Werlc on the excavation of the footing for the gas tank at Gardiner was oounoneed the last two da^s of the MM repair crew of five mm eoraseneed repairs to the I $ ^-stoa the v 7 th, 11 teaks between Oordlne?* <aad Golden Gate were ro %»irod« 11 culverts from Gardiner to -eat Yellowstone, to 'fepler Cascades, Herri • to Canyon, and from Mararoo th to ftswer Falls were inspected, cleaned out, and the side ditches wipairdd mid the drains fixed. 3ss on the above reads hare bom inspected* Ths snare area, with caterpillar sad sao :hient, left headquarters ...*v l*th said arrived at the lafee u*& 27th. distance of 49 miles «ras cleared of ma>« ahiefc in places was 4 feet deep en the level, and seme drifts were 1 feet dec- plow attachment, constructed by the master rseehanie, has had a sevore test, and results show it to be a real success, which Is contrary to the information famished bqp the caterpillar people, who could not reeofaumd a successful attachasent. Since the completion of the llfc NM erl- V Lie's crew has made repairs to the road and bridges in the vicin- ity of SUc Fork. He progress report of this wortc has been received at this date. I o - ■■■ llnHi J ■■■ mUH : - Banes? • of the Cheetar-oatiiy? ^inr who was out la the park with sslstaat Viootaan and ftaigar :oy Prasier at tbt infl of tbt nonth of 3ferU, returned to rteraoth on B*y 4th f and eaapleted Mo work la the park shortly af to awards and loft* fto work of tho rwiwfl of feeding hay to el> herds was •enpleted on tho 5th of Kay, as waa aloo tho work of foodie tup/ to our herd of surplus horses. ;raalne haa sinoo that tin© boon oaffiolaat for both oik and horsos. .'ho buffalo hard wfcieb had boon hold aad fad hap at Head- quarters, was aloo mt on grass on tho rend and no rsjere hav haa m 2he Chief Raager's report lnaloaed shows a total of 23 rial tors to tho park durlnr the rsonth. Jhose were most people who happened to eesie to aardiner on business aad ease as far aa 'anaoth Ret Springs aad baek to ftardlner the same d*y. .•here were no no e s ws o da tlons arailablo at the hotels durii* the month* Phe :rane ortatioa Ceapany furnished trans wtati on to such aa wanted to oo*e to ? eadquarters, Tla their nail stage lino between Gardiner aad iter. : . !?• Hi I. la) gsjMtrMttm of hyatoAi Be construction v?ork was In progress by this offioe at the olose of .:sty* W MMmwm «H1 Mm\t aft m§tnl Oar shop foree waa engaged throughout tho month In re- pairing tools and equipment, overfeaallag notor vehicles, includ- ing aotoreyolest with a Tie** to having mat of them In eaoellr condition for the opening Of the wanting season, sad keeping those !■ use i i ro ■ I H ?be plumber waa busy keeping up the water anu systems, and >re>arin# for construction work to be accomplished later at the automobile oem>s throughout tho par -l - Thm paint ftp finished oaintiag a *?o*d oar ha iuufc in the and mAe and painted road and other si^na for use in the parie v and renovated employees* quarters at 2ftsmth« She hydro-electric power olant was ran daily* ascee .y /W ^A *tays, from 5«Qt - * so midnight # aad produced dure.- *^*** # *** v %, aonfch a total of 0OSO kilowatt hoar. il • * hours were ©misused by eoneessionera, and 679 ♦ . hours were consumed by our shops, grounds, public bui3 ployees* ?be peak load ft mth was 36 ■'. • ?he three electricians,, in addition to running the ale a trio power ?a&e necessary ohao^as «ead repairs to lime in ahope» employees quarters, and other I J quart-. Iflae aadnten&nee wx& I iftm of hay for wild animals and toa buffalo, is in progress at t lo Farm on Hose Creole, at i&ougfc Ci'eek, and :iold at or* v ■Al sent consists ids and clearing of I asd other debfis, prep&rator. e hay» ¥l —I lillUlMfli 21* Yellowstone ar transportation Company toept its lar*>e shop force b; c^hout tho month overhauling its large fleet of : spare- tory to haac' a earneotac? faMUjr travel, several . ;;ers ara also at work raraodt?. . . o bank house at ttamoth, formerly used for sf aches, into additional rooms for employees, thus devoting tho \vfiole building to -a* $fec Yellowstone NVH S2M1 taspaqp have two Chinaman in raising? garden true* on tbalr cite n lardiner River, ara daily raca iviag lar$e quantities e *eaeon t whloh ara being hauled ft air storehouse at rj!srn»oth and to tho var tone ■-• I Company is aHkia^ eocoelleat progress in its construction work at aramoth, sad will have tho saw tents ready for ocoapaac; the season* X'be work: on the new concrete plunge at "jamaoth is also making good V' progress, and #111 be ready to use before the end of June* the construction wor* at Canp oosevelt (near ?ower tfalls) is also in progress, harlag teen resumed about the middle of k\ m . s soon -11- aa the roads were o *ne&« this company also began tho work of rebuild!*^ JLake Cawp, whisb has not been occupied for the past two years, and thls t and the wr& of ppeittrtng the carertf* at G«*v««* and 5 Jpr)sr Basin for tourists* is in pro&rese* J* :• Baynes* work of constructing a now picture & v^ on the site adjoining his ; *eec«t residence at Mamst). has been in progress since ay 4th, and is well advanced, Mr* 0« A. Hamilton is clearing up the grenade sad ma&ing usual preparations for opening his store at He is K also ■veinarii*? to rerafts operations at his lafce store* Curio atore concessioners tWfW I ^riaotaaax are still engaged in nafcin^ alterations to their bullcU MHeatfc* paintlx^ insltte and out, end giving their prsmiaaa a general reno- vating* So new projects were begun during* the month, exr as referred to as finished or in ptagrass In preceding paragraphs. lie VUM OH ?B0?0S8» iKffiK* It is proposed to ?nafce all,li*?ht repairs to roads and bridges* such as the fond a will pernit. iiese repairs will be delved until about June 15, as the wei% will fesare to be done a^ala if a rain should happen before the tourist season begins* It is proposed to hare the ssatoraobila camp at the Caqyon in shape for tourists bgr <ftme 20th* • to havo water piped to the samp grounds and sauitary arranr^raents made. Baow will hare to be removed fro m the tood at Sylvan ass and also Ponraven i ass, but no trouble is expected tmn mam on the other roads. ?h* gas tank at Gardiner will be completed this aonth. It is very possible that sprinkling between Oar&iner and the Upper Basin will be eo sneneed before July 1st, If the funds will pei-mit; at the present time the dust it so*te trouble - One or ism men mast be owAoyed at ' eadqwsrtcrs b^ th© -1 - day, to Irrigate the grounds, mow and eare for the lams and teep thora In order* 1 war* In progress shorn under XV is to be taept up to completion. ?he tame show herd of buffalo, of ar miosis* is to be broc^rht in to Hemmeth where they ean be viewed by tourists. he tele. -toons lines must all bs gone orer sad repairs se thsy will be in good working condition for the tourist bout at towperary rangers are to report for stumer duty during June, receive instructions, and be distributed to their various stations for susaer work of road patrols* patrols over formations, oheC'tlng automobiles, etc e&rrwrement of stations and permanent rangers to suit sane* conditions, is also to be made. I laas must be made for assembling of crews for naintonance of roads, sprinkling, otc, as soon as possible after July 1st, and also for rwrehase of supplies for the next fiscal year* 11 ooneeeel oners will asks preparations during the err part of- June to receive the heavy travel expooted at the opening of the park season, June 20th« \ general reofi^anii&tion of our forces with a readjust- ment of division of duties will be put into sffeet during the month of Jane « TIX. ^OLlOiag* ZIo new policies were adopted dating the say/. the policy of pemlttlug the graalog of cattle in the park, for supplying fresh meat to the concessioners and government messes, which has always been in effect but which has not been la practice for several years, because the contractor found it mors expedient to do his slaughtering outside, has been revived, and is under consideration, .'his will nrobabU *• ttttled during the month of June. Till. COS? 0? 0*<E AHO0* The seat Mpert for the month of lay is inclosed. -13- Although the v/eather oouditlon* v?*re oolder than usual, the g«wl«g conditions were fairly flood, and there waa enough graai ^ % Hh 00 that it ma no loader necessary to feed hay to tha wild animals, and the surplus horaaa and tho tana hard of buffalo were also turned out on £?ra»s on tMs date. -Ms was a great relief from the oonditi one that had prevailed all winter aad late into srsriug, due to the shortage and high pries of hay, and leak of the usual forage mi the range* ?he 100 tons of hay purchased with the *470S donated by private subsoription Just laated through , and served to save raany thousands of the elk «hlfch were not strong enough to gat thron&h the last few hard weeks of winter without being *•*• »lao« the grass has beoome plentiful, the number of wild animals that havo died are few, and those re sorted as being fbund in ay w*e mostly some that died previously and were not found until later* hile the losses hare been co^sid orable, thay were not as bad as feared, and we still have a goodly mwber of elk, deer, and antelope in the northern ril gives she nuaber in thirherd'at'^riaoltuiin^ new oalves. On* bull was killed at Hatooth in the oorral bqr another bull on Ayrll 19th f and was not reported, therefore, the number should havelaea given as 451, 2w*nty~fc»o oalves were bora in the hard during &ay, making the total nanfcer of oalves to date 46, and the total number of animals in the heard at the 0tid of &$r, 4i :, ord is now loeatad on the range in the vicinity of the ranch on lose Creek, but a small anew hard will be brou ht in to Mamsth during Juno, and three bulls will r*obably be shipried during the month* She anlmala were thin in flesh at the beginning? of Mt§% &** to their rather short ration of hay duri*** the winter, tat si ace plenty of grass is available, they are piakin& up rapidly and are nm looking well* Buffalo, wild herd t Bo reports were received of the wild herd of buffalo during -'*flr# Baays a hile the boars hove oon© out ffom their winter quarters, aad taatv •!«»• Have been reported, but fow of thoa have boon seen, as there are so nsmy carcasses of elk that dietf during the winter that they oan twi upon, they have not oome around the quarters at SSsnustftu Banters near the park lines have been •1 - fairly saooassful in oecurii^ beer this 8pri%. iftttlTOQ: Bangor ;JoJu«*ghlin, who iicii patrols from Gardiner Station, re wts hewing soon 146 antelope durir^ tho nonth, and that they were now in good condition, 3affaJ «# Laoombe reported about as xay more on the r a cgc me <>r, tew while he vu roundly np buffalo* These retvorts in- dieate that there are at least 800 antelope in the nrk, and Is aoet cnesvraglqg after the fast hard winter. uito a norther of blacktailed dear f and a few of the whitetailed variety, still renain around headquarter s 9 and these, as veil as those reported in the hi hor altitudes, are gaining In flesh and rcoov: winter. ; /-three doad blaefctailcc dear vera r having *)oe*i found, but those are a*ao Ifce* diod earlier in the «***< me lose dm-iiv the etMl or If MM sli i. £lfc: The el> that survived the hard winter Saprovoc in flesh wonderfully during the aonth of ttsy, cad are no? looklzg • and no n»ro are dying, as they hare an abundance of feed* ?4>st of the larger herds have gone back towards the suaaa tat there ere still a few hundred within ■ tm And a snnll band still hangs around eloec to the aey be seen erery day feeding upon ear lame, Jhcre trc 234 eareasees found by Badger Anderson on his tatrols alonr the north line east of Gardiner, bat these died mostly U - arot ojri Conservative* estimates place tho number of elk renaini^ in the northern herd, including those on the adison Mver and on the est Sallatln, at around 11,000, and I en reliably informed 5 about 13,000 ef the southern herd* vdiioh wintered in Jackson i, survived the hard winter. Eighty elk, including 79 oows end 1 bull, wintered around the warm sprigs in the viciziity of Harris Basin, sad tea or three hundred wintered along the i irehole River, Upper Basin to the west entrance* ?here were but fo . deaths these two saall herds. e are tt^ fortunate to hove so %qy elk left after one of the aest perilous winters that they have ever had to contend ith, and had It not bean for the fact that ttylwere able to cure large quantities of forage for the* during the winter and late into the siring, the results of the long hard winter m have been most dieasteroue. -1 - >; A few mountain sheep died during the tryirr; s-^lxc Bi&aifc* or April and &y, tat tne lose was eraall as eotqpared with the ©lie and door* and those seen recently are in fine eonditlon* jftttlftft; Aci5idtai.it Uhlef i caster Btfootes epent the first tranter day a of May in the eoutfeeastem corner Hi the iparfc* where be sear W moose* of whieb 81 were grown and 14 ere last year's o&lves, ineide of the pari*, aad 49 were near tfte park In the t?|*per Yellowstone county, of whieh 41 war* grora end S oalves* found nine deed moose in all. He reports that the ftoose in that country were in a rather week e audit; I laofc of fera«e* due to deep snow and severe winter* - lso that he did m> oore? the ootmfcry tho^ou^hly, as the travel i ■ sit, to soft, toep «mow f and also to 11* AM that he fouaid it in- advisable to disturb the imym in their ireafesaac- as they were likely to get into &**r\ snow end get down where they oould not get up again. £amtoj&t °w» badger and forty-one coyotes were rented killed durlnff the mnth % bat toe to the lateness of the season, the -jolta are if but little value* M reports were received of noun tain lions or solves dnriag the sienth. Ormxlmt i About ay 5th tho grass had gotten such a start that toe wild animals as well as the tame buffalo and the horse heard were able to get all tUe subsistence neeesoary further feeding of hay. It grew plentifully shron^hout the oo» all of th* animals are getting all they at little effort now f end besides there is a good growth, on the rea^e along the north line that will cure <m the stalk later In the sooner for nest winter's supply* :he Tellowatone Park Cawps Cerapaay had N horses In tho ;*r nd the Yellowstone ark *raiifi ortation Cesqpmy »^» "*** of these on graa* in tno vicinity of Feed- quarters* <*ad also we have had an averse of about & of our surplus saddle, pack and team horses on grass during 2*Vt taking then up as they ware wanted for work* Ur« .-alter Ul, who bought tha Van Mfe property Gardiner and tho Upper Yellowstone Volley* »*& feis aeeistaut, Bodine* ealled at my offlee ay 26th to dlsouss the desirability of reestabli shirr the praotloe which was abandoned in 1916 of grasia? the beef eat tie needed for supply! m the hotels and oaeape in the park* Phis request was disapproved by your letter of .ay -1 - 21et,(in the case of the Yellowstone iwk Betel Company,} tat they have reopened the ease en the #*&uads that it is neeessary on aeeenut of increased travel, and further decision ie pet to 1m MMfe birds are sm*eh in evidence throughout the rm*&* arte Hanger ndersoa resorts that &rouee are mere numerous than usual to the country he ie >mtrollintf t near the north line of the pjfcg eaet of Qardi&er. Further detail*, relative to birds, M observed hy , ark Saturallst ,4cintiar f are given in another portion of tMs report. - the heading of ' o&sonal Cfaan • n interesting si*a-d*velorrcent of the work with tho elk vat the observanee by naturalist dinner of may birds on fee foovUii/ ml b ad dia& Emwwdfl bol<xv , notl . ?he birds « * wtoraoicers, aagpieo, crows, and Brewer blae&bisdo. ihfiir abundance reached its highest point about ;*ii first, fte birds were feeding and it was ML laved I , ^ere feedisg on tictics which also were mat abundant about April first* , s ectmtu of natcraeftar was collected and stomach easesined and parts of several ticks were Jfcund therein* It *as roved then that this bird was destructive to H i-ioe our tick problem is a serious one, it is believed that this isreUttiaary data is valuable enough to warrant a *aore extended examination next season. 2he time those birds ate ticks appwwritl^ extended <nw the latter half of ;ia*eh, all of tiril, and ?e part of Hey* MM* aest of the streams of the imrk were high and the water was isad^r, due to mltlng snow, therefore fistiisfc oas not #ood. -17- Hi ir joj At the Altitude of Nameth the following flowers began to Moon- 13th, Doadelloue; 15th, Yellow Mil; 17th, asque floweri 19th, hlox* lid clover; 1st, -ho Ala star; 23rd, lid strawberry; 24th, Larkspur, 26th, Dwarf eanflowwr and Spring At the* altitude of Hamoth, eaowpt where altitude given, Xeavea buret their buds 3 13th, 3c.se- berr? bashes; 17th, lid rod raepberry bushes, 19th. Cottonwood trooo ( 1 b. -Uh) ft.) i 21et, lder trees: 26th, Blreh treee ♦ ; 30th, 111cm bushes (5600 ft,). «?«ssles ' ap-«ared en willowe em the 9th near Mejonoth at 6400 ft., and on the 31et at iatao Yellowstone at 7780 ft. In general, vagetation at en altitude of 7500 ft. on May &•** "»* at the earns etage ae it wae at 6500 ft. on fay 13th. Birds- The nutereekere that had been so none roue all winter about .'to-moth had ,*aotioally all left for higher altitudes by the Ulgratory birds arrived i 6th, udubon warbler and ri*ht flyeatehert 6th, ?ree ewallew, say ptoobe, e stern veeoer sparrow, and *wralng derej 9th, hite-oro.vnod aparrow t 13th, Chi KU*tlrd| 16th, Oreen- tailed tewtaeei lTth, Cowbird, 16th, spotted earid i or and lleon phalarope; 20th, hits pelloani 21et, *.aadhlll erane; -6th, Cliff •wallow and Yellow warbleri 30th, Catbird, .:1st, .ndiibon hermit thrush. First eg*?e obeerved: 16th, oeprey In Gardiner Canyon at 5600 ft. and about the eane date in Yellowetono Canyon at 7200 ft.| 21at, llldeer plover? L'Bth, obixu ej in Hkx 4th, last one eeen with Old home and on the earns date another elk had new horns five Inohes lo*.' • 11th, laat obeerred death of winter«4dllled elk. 15th, began to in *m* in flesh although it evident a week earlier that the regaining elk ,_n ohar^lar; bs earner pelego. At the em the- -o.it) Ml MtoM IK e*M iMiM IfloJ H HM -.1 - (Animals ooii- yearlings to fifteen inches Ion- on the heal tr lest tinned) i of tho larere bulls* ft calves soon before the end of tho month. Hale deer: On the 16th X noted that where the hair had Veen eera ed off earlier, the red pelade of summer was appearing* 24th, the red pelade was shewing: throngh the old hair; at the end of the math about half the deer were chewing the red, eanner pelage. At the end of the month, the grow* lag horns were from three to eleven inches in length, dcendlng en the age aad oondltion of the ttain sheep: On the tie* there were fifteen on the tenon eaet of Jardlner Canyon, rhese to one on the 90th aad that one left beftre the end of the nor tieeellacneeue* oodehuctcs aad ground squirrels were oat on Swan Laics Baein (7900 ft. he 9th; 10th 9 Jack rabbits had completely changed to artwer pelage; 31st, the first mantled ground squirrel seen at 8000 ft* elevation. cc.ers (Hylic first heard near Ttosaoth on the 3rd; raid in fall force at Lake station on the fist, Kiret boll aaalos eeen on the 26th near Boiling or. Sone of these seasonal changes ere late, espeoia? early in the month; tat after Hay 15th, seasonal changes often earlier than usual. ieokoning tram these data is toddy four days later than the I c is to bo noted that the seasonal changes of flowers aad animals, etc., do agl depend on the depth of last winter v s enow still regaining, for that is folly three weeks late in going off the nark plateau. jTtgtf aafl Yiftlfttiiwa jtf tarn* 36 vie la t tens of law were reported, nor were any arrests made, during the math* Rasters ease aad aiaughlin en one of their patrols to l eese Creek near the nark line west of aardiner, observed tee son engaged in skinning a freshly killed bear, in the gsne pre* serve outsMe of the iark, artf re sorted the facts, a letter wa© written to the State Uome arden of Montana in regard to this il- legal hunting in the game preserve, tat in the meantime the arties made complaint against themselves before the deputy •19- ivizi*sten and paid their fine and were also made to forfeit the bear trophiee. Jhere is no dan or of forest fire* in the park while everything is 1 its oreoent et condition* re sorted during the month except a alight injur,/ to a blaotonith's helper* who eat hie hand on the crier/ wheel* fee ehaugea have been noted in the natural this sprite. Old tfeithfol leaser seems to be >leying oftenor than it did last season* but this will be reported aero minutely next month, after nere careful observations hare been mode* Zhe Constant Peyser at orris Basin appears to have stopped playing, and the hot sprite and snail geyeers in this basin do not appaar <juite ae aotive as they were last year* ootor Sastea rope, of San Franeleoo, California, and his friend, *r. Young, arrived at the western entreaoe :ay 26th f to secure the family of four grissly bears for the California eadany ot beienees, as anthorlsed rehruary 17th. As announced, these gentlemen were equipped with formidable looking bows and arrows with whleh they hops to mil the bears that are eeleoted as spool was. Doctor ope*& brother, and friend, and their guide, Vi9& Frost, of Oody, arrived Tie the northern entrance on Say Slat, and joined the party at £naad Oanyon. Mr* Clark, the new supervisor of the Jallatln national orest, with anger oLain, of his foree, sailed en flay 18th. • • resident oi the Yellowstone ark Hotel Qowpaoy and Yellowstone . arfc ?rane ortation GoaQpnmr, visited the parfc :::/.y 6th and 7th. ttejgeant I'll sen, and three oorporals, all Of the IU k arine corps, detached at MLUU«e fro-i the oving Marine travel tng, T ooruitin^ and Pnblleity party Bft* 8, Hay 2nd 3rd, taking photographs, and viewing soenery in the vi >th. -.'..« 2he only motion picture representative) in the parte during the month of fcy was r. J. . Ha.soy, representing a, Chester, of IN est 41st street* V,m York City, who oane to the perk aroh 12th and left ay 9th* ftraqr asslstanee praetioabl© vat given t, >-*sey: his exoenoes were carried lap this off iee while he wae in the park, as per your instructions* and he reports that he secured excellent results. I Free plcturoc were held in the ost auditorial weoJdy, under a coo erativ* a rran g e ment the *arfc employees and residents of lardlner, Religious serrloes were held in the Chapel en :?ay 9th 23rd, by Reverend J. • rltehard, Bpiecr. eionary fros •.. ,' I ( 1 • 2he usual report of monies due, oo Hooted, and raitted, on the r^nlar blanfc fome, together with money orders, for v4«05, is inclosed. lease acknowledge I MM l yowrs, NUttl 4B1 'i!he ireotor, National -arte Uerriee, Depart *mt of the Interior, ashing ton, iu i Inolooures: I MM ~&- ., I Memorandum of Ranger operations during the month of Kay 1920* Memo* to Mr* Lindsley: 1* The ima&kjgc temperature was uniformlly loir during the month, but no unusual extremes oo cured* There was neealy 50j£ more pre- cipitation during the month than for the average May* 3*2 inches of snow fell during the math of which two inches fell on the last day* Ths wind movement was about normal* 2* Ranger Townsend moved from Riverside Station to Norris Station ?n the 28th of the month* Mr. Hutohins noved to Slough Creek on the 22nd ?:here he will take oare of the hay fields and this years crop*of hay* Temporary Ranger Trip was relieved of his duties as ranger on the 18th and started as truck driver on the 19th. Assistant Chief Ranger Smith moved from Gardiner where he had \yf been feeding hay to game to West Yellowstone where he will take care of tho Western Section of the park. Following is a list of men who were on leave during the month with inclusive dates of their leaves: Sooyen ,i***1 }/i^ From To Days 4th 8th 6 Dustman 4th 6th 3 Dewing 17th 30th 12 Dustman 15th N. 15th 4 Laoombe (Buffalo Keeper) 26th 28th 3 Mclaughlin 29th 31st 1 Bowman 24th 31st 6 Purdy 23rd 31st 7 l 3* The rangers at Cardiner stopped feeding elk on the Gardiner feed grounds on the 2nd of the month. Only a few bales of hay were fed the first two days of the month. The elk around the feeding grounds at Headquarters were fed for the last time on the 5th of the month. l\ tons of hay were fed the elk at Headquarters during the five days. The buffalo that had been held in at Headquarters on account of t,he shortage of feed at the buffalo farm ware taken back to the farm on the 3rd. Two tons of hay were fed these t& during the first two days of the month* y/ The herd of horses was turned out to pasture on the 5th of j^ \/ the month. 2^ tons of hay were fed £o- the horse herd the first five ft S> days of the month. -*- *V#Ki"* 'tifcJub*-' X^t^T Rangers ^awson and Sooyen cut, hauled s(nd set 42 new posts tff?* for the fence at the buffalo corral near ' Headquarters • They worked four days helping to pipe water tin to the cabin at the buffalo corral. >S During the month the rangers at Gardiner in their spare time '""built a fine new corral at the Gardiner Station. On the 4th rangers Trisohraan and Fraaier returned from a trip to the Upper Basin* and anyon with Mr. Ramsey the moving picture man. This trip had been made on skis* • Assistant Chief Ranger Trischman acted as property man and timekeeper with the snow crew from the 12th to the 28 th* k Assistant Chief Ranger Brooks was in the Upper Yellowstone country from the 1st to the 19th*/ The other rangers made their regular patrols, out next winters y/ wood, cleaned their stations and station grounds, and other duties as ordered by the Chief Ranger* The roof on the stable at the hay farm on Slough 6 reek was put \y^ on and general nut clean up made around the farm during the last ten days of the month* The cleaning of ditches and the starting of irragation was % acomplished at the hay fields at the Buffalo *arm during the month* 4. There is still a small band of elk around Headquarters. These animals can be seen feeding on the lawns in front of Headquarters daily, which is very unusual as all a Ik have kstt left this vicinity in former years. Many of the deer are still around Headquarters* There have been 48 calves born in the tame herd of buffalo this spring* All buffalo are located near the buffalo farm at the end of the month* While most of the bears are out few have been seen, for there are so many dead elk in the mountains they do not come near the hotels and camps for food* The bear were late in making their appearance this spring. u 148 antelope were seen during the month by Ranger He aughin who reports them is good condition* There are a few Blacktail and a few Whitetail deer still around headquarters and they are in good shape. Rangers report a goo$ many deer near the park line in the park about five miles west of ardiner, Montana * Most of the elk have gone back in the hills and they are re- ported as doing fine and looking good. Ranger Anderson reports that between the mouth of Bear Creek and Hellroaring Creek he counted during the month 211 dead elk, 5 dead buffalo, and 19 dead deer. In the Blacktail District he counted 73 dead elk, one dead buffalo, and 14 dead deer* During the month the following hides and scalps were turned in: ^ame Coyotes Badger v v V / l Anderson one one y\X </ five scalps /M$ > P Winn six » Lacombe five On account of the high and muddy condition of the streams in the park little fishing has been done and few fish have been taken* Ranger /aider son reports that grouse are more numerous than in former years and that they run up into large numbers* 5. Rangers ^eese and McLauglin located two men hunting bear in the G a iiatin G ame ^serve within a short distance of the park line, but asi they have no jurisdiction outside of the park no arrest followed. The facts were reported to the Chief Rangers Office and a letter written to the State Game Warden of Montana, The guilty parties gave themselves up to a Deputy State G ame w arden at Livingston, Montana, and theyiere fined $26 and costs and made to forfeit the bear hide. Yellowstone Park, 70 . , June 2 f 1920 • Weather Conditions — liar et Springe. MAY, 1920. Monthly mean, 43«4 ; departure, -4.0* . Ihe temperature was uniformly low throughout the month, but no unusual extremes occurred. Temperature : Precipitation: i t 2.84; departure 40.92, or nearly 50' more than for the average May. slightly Snowfall: Total, 3.2 inches, which lawless than norr Two inches of snow fell during the storm of the last day of the month. This amount of snow is unusual so lat( 9 spring. Tind: o wind movement was about normal, :iaxinua velocity, 36 miles from the southwest on the 25th. Sunshine: Percentage of possible, 55; normal F>3. . .1. letcher. Observer. c^i3 DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SERVICE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK YELLOWSTONE PARK, WYO. OF THE SUPERINTENDENT June 1, 1920. Preliminary REPORT on Tick destruction by birds. To: Chester A. Lindsley, Asat. Supt., From: M. P. Skinner, Park Haturaliet. An interesting side-developement of the work with the elk was the observance of many biros on the feeding and bedding grounds below iiammoth. The oirds were nutcrackers, magpies, crows, and Brewer blackbirds. Their abundance reached its highest point about April first. The birds were feeding and it was believed that they were feeding on ticks which also wore nost abundant about April first, A specimen of nutcracker was collected z.n6 stomach examined and parts of several tick? were found therein. It was proved then that this bird was destruc- tive to ticks. Since our tick problem is a serious one, it in believed that this preliminary data is valu- able enough to warrant a more extended examination next season. «> The time these ate ticks apparently extended over the letter half of ]&arch, all of April, and the fore part of May* OF THE SUPERINTENDENT DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SERVICE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK YELLOWSTONE PARK, WYO. J une 1, 1920. REPORT on seasonal changes* To: Chester A, Lindsley, Asst* Supt. Prom: M. P. Skinner, Park Naturalist* Botanical: At the altitude of Mammoth the following flowers began to bloom: 13th, Dandelions; 15th i Yellow bell; 17th, Paeque flower; 19th, Phlox; 21st, Wild clover; 21st, Shooting star; 23rd, Wild Btrawberry; 24th, Lark- spur; 26th, Dwarf sunflower and Spring beauty* At the altitude of Uammoth, except where altitude given, leaves burst their buds: 13th, Gooseberry bushes; 17th, Wild red raspberry bushes; 19th, Cottonwood trees (alt. 5400 ft,)? 21st, Alder trees; 26th, Birch trees (alt, 5600 ft.); 30th, Willow bushes (5600 ft.). "Pussies" appeared on willows on the 9th near Mam- moth at 6400 ft,, and on the 31st at Lake Yellowstone at 7750 ft, In general, vegetation at an altitude of 7500ft, on Hay 31st, was at the oaiae stage as it was at 6500 ft. on May 13th. Birds: The nutcrackers that had been so numerous all winter about Mammoth had practically all left for higher alti- tudes by the 4th. Migratory birds arrived: 5th, Audubon warbler end Wright flycatcher; 8th, Tree swallow, Say phoebe, Wes- tern vesper sparrow, and Mourning dove; 9th, Y/hite- crowned sparrow; 13th, Chipping sparrow and Kingbird; 15th Green- tailed towhee; 17th, Cowbird; 18th Spotted sandpiper and Wilson phalarope; 20th, White pelican; 21st, Sandhill crane; 26th, Cliff swallow and Yellow warbler; 30th, Catbird; 31st, Audubon hermit thrush. First eggs observed: 16th, Ocprey in Gardiner Canyon at 5600 ft, and about the same date in Yellowstone Can- yon at 7200 ft; 21st, Killdeer plover; 28th, Robin. Animals: Elk: 4th, last one seen with old horns and on the same date another elk had new horns five inches long. 11th, last observed death of winter-killed elk. 15th, began to improve in flesh although it was evident a week earlier that the remaining elk were improving in health and strength, 23rd, elk oegan changing to the summer pelage. At the end of the month new horns were three inches long on the yearlings to fifteen inches long on Page 2. the healthiest of the large bulls. No calves *3cen before the end of the month. Mule deer: Or the 16th, I noted that where the hair had been scraped off earlier, the red pelage of summer was appearing; 24th, the red pelage was showing through the old hair; at the end of the month about half the deer were showing the red, sunnier pelage. At the end of the month, the growing horns were from three to eleven inches in length depending on the age and condition of the animal. Duntain iheep: On the 21st, there were fifteen sheep on the bench east of Gardiner Canyon. These decreased to ore on the 30th and that one left before the end cf the month. Misc; Woodehucke and ground squirrels were out on Swan Lake Basin (7300 ft) on the 9th; 10th, jack rabbits had completely changed to summer pelage; 31st, the first mantled* ground squirrel seen at 8000 ft. elevation. Other: Peepers (Hylas) first heard near Mammoth on the 3rd; and in full force at Lake station on the 31st* First bull snake seen en the Z6th near foiling River. Some cf these seasonal changes were late, especially early in the month; but after May 15th, seasonal changes were often earlier than usual. Reckoning from these data, the season is to-day four days later than the aver- age. It is to be ncteci that the seasonal changes of flowers and animals, etc. do not depend on the depth of last guf 6 winter's snow still remaining, for that is fully three weeks late in going off the Park plateau.